Renewable And Efficient Electric Power Systems Solutions Manual Pdf !FREE!
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The NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM) provides a major link in the NEMS framework. In each model year, the EMM receives electricity demand from the NEMS demand modules, fuel prices from the NEMS fuel supply modules, expectations from the NEMS system module, and macroeconomic parameters from the NEMS macroeconomic module and then estimates the actions taken by electric utilities and nonutilities to meet demand in the most economical manner. The EMM then outputs electricity prices to the demand modules, fuel consumption to the fuel supply modules, emissions to the system module, and capital requirements to the macroeconomic module. The model is iterated until a solution is reached for that model year. The EMM consists of four submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule (ECP): The purpose of the ECP is to determine how the electric power industry will change its mix of generating capacity over the forecast horizon. It is intended to consider investment decisions for both demand- and supply-side options. However, consumer responses are assumed to be represented in the end-use demand modules, so the structure for demand-side management (DSM) options is not utilized within the ECP. It evaluates retirement decisions for fossil and nuclear plants and captures responses to environmental regulations, such as the CAAA or limits on carbon emissions. It includes traditional and nontraditional sources of supply. The ECP also represents changes in the competitive structure (i.e., deregulation). Due to competition, no distinction is made between utilities and nonutilities as owners of new capacity. Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD): The objective of the EFD is to represent the economic, operational, and environmental considerations in electricity dispatching and trade. The EFD allocates available generating capacity to meet the demand for electricity on a minimum cost basis, subject to engineering constraints and to restrictions on emissions such as SO2, NOx, mercury, and carbon. Electricity Finance and Pricing Submodule (EFP): The EFP forecasts financial information for electric utilities on an annual basis given a set of inputs and assumptions concerning forecast capacity expansion plans, operating costs, regulatory environment, and financial data. The outputs of the model include electricity prices by end use sectors for North American Electric Reliability (NERC) and Census regions, financial statements, revenue requirements, and financial ratios for each state of production (generation, transmission and distribution). Load and Demand-Side Management Submodule (LDSM): Broadly speaking, the LDSM submodule has been designed to perform four major functions: Translate total electricity consumption forecasts into system load shapes Develop utility DSM programs for potential inclusion in future utility capacity expansion plans Translate census division demand data into NERC region data, and vice versa Report DSM impact on regional system demand. Emissions:
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