Skipper Sam Show Rochester Ny ((EXCLUSIVE))
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New York WNBC, later WABD: The Children's Hour (with Stan Lee Broza) WABC-TV, WNEW, WOR: Romper Room ("Miss Gloria", "Miss Joan", "Miss Barbara", "Miss Louise", "Miss Mary Ann", "Miss Molly") WNBC: Uncle Wethbee (with Tex Antoine) WNYW/WNEW/WABD: Freddie the Fireman (with Ed McCurdy) WNYW/WNEW/WABD: J. Fred Muggs Show WNYW/WNEW/WABD: Sandy Becker's Fun House! (hosted by Sandy Becker) WNYW/WNEW/WABD: Funny Bunny (with Dick Noel) WNYW/WNEW: Wonderama (with Sonny Fox and Bob McAllister) WNYW/WNEW: The Sandy Becker Show WNYW/WNEW: Felix the Cat and Friends (with "Uncle Fred" Scott and Allen Swift) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV, later WPIX: The Merry Mailman (with Ray Heatherton) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: Happy Felton's Knothole Gang (with Happy Felton) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: The Johnny Andrews Show (with Johnny Andrews, Paul Ashley and Chuck McCann) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: Little Tom Tom at the Wigwam Party (Gene London) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: MerryTunes Circus (Claude Kirchner) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: Merry Mailman's Funhouse (Ray Heatherton) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: The Scrub Club (Claude Kirchner) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: The Super Adventure Theater (Claude Kirchner) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: Terrytoons Circus (Claude Kirchner) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: The Space Explorer's Club (Al Hodge) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: Space Station Nine (Chubby Jackson) WWOR-TV/WOR-TV: Steampipe Alley (Mario Cantone and Judy Katchska) WPIX: Popeye ("Captain Allen" Swift) WPIX/WNEW: The Chuck McCann Show WNYW/WNEW: The Soupy Sales Show WNYW/WNEW: Lunch with Soupy Sales WNYW/WNEW: Great Bombo's Magic Cartoon Circus Lunchtime Show (with Chuck McCann and Paul Ashley) WNYW/WNEW: Just for Fun! (Sonny Fox) WNYW/WNEW: Speak Out (Sonny Fox) WNYW/WNEW: Chuck McCann's Laurel and Hardy Show (with Chuck McCann and Paul Ashley) WPIX: Bozo the Clown (with Bill Britten) WNBC: Watch Your Child/The Me Too Show WNBC/WNBT: Facts N' Fun (with Shari Lewis) WNBC: Birthday House (with Paul Tripp) WABC-TV: Tinker's Workshop (with Bob Keeshan, Dom DeLuise, Henry Burbig, and Gene London) WABC-TV: Jolly Gene and His Fun Machine (with Bill Britten) WABC-TV: Time for Fun (with Joseph Bova) WABC-TV: The Tommy Seven Show (with Ed Bakey) WPIX: Joya's Fun School WPIX: The Magic Garden WPIX: Kartoon Klub (Shari Lewis) WPIX: Shariland (Shari Lewis) WPIX: Cartoon Zoo (Milt Moss) WPIX: Cartoon Express (Bill Britten) WPIX: Clubhouse Gang (Joe Bolton) WPIX: Let's Have Fun! (Chuck McCann, Paul Ashley, Terry Bennett) WPIX: Laurel and Hardy and Chuck (Chuck McCann) WPIX: The Surprise Show (Hank Stohl; Morey Bunin; Jimmy Boyd) WPIX: The Carol Corbett Show (Carol Corbett) WPIX: The Chuck McCann Show (with Chuck McCann and Paul Ashley) WPIX: The Beachcomber Bill Show (with Bill Biery; Herb Bass) WPIX: Pancake Man (with Hal Smith) WCBS-TV: The Patchwork Family (with Carol Corbett, Carey Antebi) WCBS-TV: Terry Tell Time (with Carol Reed; Morey Bunin; Hope Bunin) WNET/WNTA: The Puppet Hotel (with Chuck McCann and Paul Ashley) WNET/WNTA: Junior Frolics (with "Uncle Fred" Sayles) WNET/WNTA: Junior Carnival (with "Uncle Steve" Hollis) (Sunday version of essentially same show with different host) WNET/WNTA: Studio 99½ (with Jimmy Nelson) WNET, WNTA: Super Serial (with Al Hodge, Eric Page) WNET, WNTA: Funderama (with Herb Sheldon, Arnold Stang, Morey Amsterdam)
Bogle's description is similar to the portrayal of the main black character in Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. Stowe's Tom is a gentle, humble, Christian slave. His faith is simple, natural, and complete. Stowe uses Tom's character to show the perfect gentleness and forgiving nature which she believed lay dormant in all blacks. These qualities reveal themselves under favorable conditions. Mr. Shelby, Tom's first Master is kind; therefore, Tom's innate spirituality flourishes. Mr. Shelby is not a good businessman; his financial troubles necessitate that he sell Tom. Tom does not run away despite a warning that he is to be sold. Mr. St. Clare, his second master, befriends Tom and promises to free him. Unfortunately for Tom, Mr. St. Clare is killed before signing manumission papers. Tom's fortunes take a decidedly sad turn. Tom is sold to Simon Legree, a brutal and sadistic deep South plantation owner. Legree is also a drunkard who hates religion and religious people.
Stowe wanted to show how slavery was incongruent with Christianity. How could Christians, she wondered, buy, sell, and trade slaves? How could they offer even tacit approval of slavery? How could white Christians allow their enslaved brethren to be sold to the likes of Legree? Her book is an unabashed attack on slavery, and Tom is one of her two perfect Christian characters; Mr. St. Clare's daughter, Eva, the other. Both die, Tom as a martyr.
Uncle Tom's Cabin sold over two million copies within two years of its publication in 1853. In the first three years after its publication, fourteen proslavery novels were written to contradict the book's antislavery messages. A more subtle undermining of Stowe's portrayal of slavery occurred on entertainment stages. By 1879 there were at least forty-nine traveling companies performing Uncle Tom's Cabin throughout the United States (Turner, 1994, p. 78). The stage versions, often called Tom Shows, differed from Stowe's book in significant ways. Little Eva was now the star; all other characters were relegated to the periphery. The violence inherent in slavery was understated. In some instances the brutality was ignored completely. Slaves were depicted as "happy darkies" living under a benevolent, paternalistic system. Legree was mean but not a brute, and in some Tom shows he was portrayed as doing Tom a favor by killing him -- since Tom could not enter heaven unless he died.
The versions of Uncle Tom that entertained audiences on stages were drained of these noble traits. He was an unthinking religious slave, sometimes happy, often fearful. Significantly, the stage Toms were middle-aged or elderly. He was shown stooped, often with a cane or stick. He was thin, almost emaciated. His eyesight was failing. These depictions of Uncle Tom are inconsistent with Stowe's Tom who was a "broad-chested, strong armed fellow." Stowe's original was the father of small children, unlike the desexed Toms of the stage. Stowe's Tom was capable of outworking most slaves. Patricia Turner says of Stowe:
Uncle Tom was not the only Tom depicted in early American movies. Indeed, the Tom character was a staple of the movie screen and, later, television shows. In the silent short film Confederate Spy (Olcott, 1910), Uncle Daniel, a Tom character, is a southern black spy. He is caught and brought before a Union firing squad. He has no regrets facing death because he "did it for massa's sake and for little massa" (Bogle, 1994, p. 6). In For Massa's Sake (Golden, 1911), a former slave is so attached to his former master that he sells himself back into slavery to help pay the white man's debts (Bogle, p. 6). The Birth of a Nation (Griffith, 1915) and Hearts in Dixie (Sloane, 1929) have numerous anti-black caricatures, including Toms who adore their masters.
Eddie Anderson played the Tom role in Jezebel (Wyler, 1938) and You Can't Cheat an Honest Man (Cowan & Marshall, 1939), but he is best known as Jack Benny's raspy voiced manservant Rochester. The pair appeared in movies, for example, Love Thy Neighbor (Sandrich, 1940), and The Meanest Man in the World (Perlberg & Lanfield, 1943), radio programs, and a long-running television program. Their on-screen relationship was characterized by good natured struggles, with Rochester often besting his "Boss." Rochester was one of the first black characters to "show up" his white employer; nevertheless, the role still fits into the Tom stereotype, albeit with elements of shrewdness and rebellion.
The 1930s and 1940s were the heyday for cinematic Tom depictions. Virtually every film that dealt with slavery included Toms. The still popular Gone With the Wind (Selznick & Fleming, 1939) included the Tom character Pork, a pathetic man, his back stooped, his speech halted, afraid of whites, yet desiring, above all, to please them. Pork is a marginal character. In later movies Toms would be even more marginalized, many lacking names. Coons played the role of comic relief. Toms symbolized wealth. Producers who wanted to show that a family had "old money" often surrounded the family with black servants. Toms also suggested a nostalgic social order. Toms represented the supposed "good ol' days" before the civil rights and black power movements.
The list of Toms who have been used to sell products is too long to exhaust here. In the 1890s Dixon's Carburet of Iron Stove Polish used "Uncle Obadiah" in their advertisements. He is elderly, frail, with ragged clothes, but he is smiling. In the 1920s Schulze Baking Company used the image of an old banjo-strumming Tom on its advertisement selling Uncle Wabash Cupcakes. In the 1940s Listerine used a black porter in its magazine advertisements, and Mil-Kay Vitamin Drinks used a smiling black waiter on its posters and billboards. A 1950s souvenir tip tray from The Homestead in Hot Springs, Virginia, shows a smiling black waiter balancing plates on his head. In the 1940s Converted Rice changed the name of its major product to Uncle Ben's Brand Rice, and began using the image of a smiling, elderly black man on its package. Arguably the most enduring commercial Tom is "Rastus," the Cream of Wheat Cook.
Rastus was created in 1893 by Emery Mapes, one of the owners of North Dakota's Diamond Milling Company.2 He wanted a likable image to help sell packages of "breakfast porridge." Mapes, a former printer, remembered the image of a black chef among his stock of old printing blocks. He made a template of the chef and named the product Cream of Wheat. The original logo showed a black chef holding a skillet in one hand and a bowl of Cream of Wheat in the other (Siegel, 1992). This logo was used until the 1920s when Mapes, impressed by the "wholesome" looks of a Chicago waiter serving him breakfast, created a new chef. The waiter was paid five dollars to pose as the second Rastus in a chef's hat and jacket. The image of this unknown man has appeared, with only slight modifications, on Cream of Wheat boxes for almost ninety years. 2b1af7f3a8